history of artsakh


The conflict in the region of Artsakh, also known as Nagorno-Karabakh, is quite recent compared to the history of Artsakh itself. Large numbers of refugees left Armenia and Azerbaijan as pogroms began against the minority populations of the respective countries. A Brief History of the Art and Architecture of Artsakh — Nagorno Karabakh. In 1826, in Karabakh the Persian armies with which was and Mekhti-khan have intruded; but they could not grasp Shusha which was protected desperately with Russian and Armenians, and have been expelled by Russian general Madatoff (himself Armenian from Karabakh by origin). Nagorno Karabakh — Artsakh in Armenian — is one of the cradles of Armenian statehood and the birthplace of a late medieval emancipatory movement in Eastern Armenia. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, Artsakh joined the Transcaucasian Federation, which broke up the following year into the republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. In 372 Mushegh defeated the Caucasus Albanians, took Utik from them, and restored the border along the Kura, "as was earlier". Realm The highest level of authority. It is … The Soviet policy backfired, however, when a joint session of the Armenian Supreme Soviet and the National Council, the legislative body of Nagorno-Karabakh, proclaimed the unification of Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia. At the same time, the Armenian meliks were granted supreme command over neighboring Armenian principalities and Muslim khans in Caucasus, in return for the meliks' victories over the invading Ottoman Turks in the 1720s. [9] According to a 5th-century CE Armenian tradition, a local chieftain named Aran (Առան) was appointed by the Parthian King Vologases I (Vagharsh I) to be the first governor of this province. By April 12, the Azerbaijan approach has been stopped in Giulistan – under Chaikend, in the Varanda – under Keshishkend and Sigankh. [14] It is unclear when Orchistenê became part of Armenia. [33], In the beginning of 16th century Karabakh was subjected to the Safavid Empire, which created there the same-titled administrative unit, comprising also some nearby territories and centered in the city of Ganja. Musavat and Ittihad parties were accused of Pan-Turkism by Bolsheviks and their allies. Ереван, 1992, pp.323–326 Document №214. Artsakh and the neighboring province of Utik features prominently in the “History of Aghvank,” written in the 7th century by one of Artsakh's most prominent natives—Armenian historian Movses Kaghankatvatzi. This is a timeline of Artsakh's history, representing territorial control under three columns: . The Karabakh Committee was also created to work towards the goal of reunification. As a result, the massacres are dubbed the March Days and the September Days. Golestan-i Iram, Mirza Jamal Javanshir Karabagi. Volume I. Stuttgart 1894". During the Middle Ages, Artsakh was repeatedly conquered. Dating back to the 9-6th century BC, the region was governed by various Armenian kingdoms, and in the 17th century it was annexed by the Russian Empire. т.41 М., 1939, стр. At the beginning of the 5th century, thanks to the creation of the Armenian alphabet by Mesrop Mashtots, an unprecedented rise of culture began in whole Armenia, in particular also in Artsakh, Mesrop Mashtots having founded one of the first Armenian schools at the Artsakh Amaras Monastery. [84] Nadezhda Mandelstam so describes Shusha 20th years: " everywhere the same: two houses without a roof, without windows, without doors. Azerbaijani residents of the NKAO, meanwhile, were complaining about discrimination by the Armenian majority of the autonomous oblast and their economic marginalization. And the name Nagorno-Karabakh comes from Russian rule, with "Nagorno" coming from the Russian word "nagorny," meaning highlands. Less than one month after Artsakh declared its independence, Stepanakert was shelled for the first time and as attacks became more common, this period became considered Azerbaijan's declaration of war. "Armenia armed by Russia for battles with Azerbaijan". [86] However, the Armenian armies on Zangezur front, under command of the general Dro (Drastamat Kanayan) crushed the Azerbaijan barriers and broke in Karabakh. Artsakh Geopolitical entity in Artsakh proper (Mountainous Karabakh). We have put together over 150 documents, statements, articles, books and other essential materials for the convenience of those who study the History of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) and it's conflict with Azerbaijan. In September, at the 2nd Congress of the Armenians of Karabakh the People's Government was renamed into the Armenian National Council of Karabakh. Another temple whose history relates to the mission of St. Mesrob Mashtotz is the Targmanchatz In September 2020, fighting broke out with a bombing in Stepanakert once more and the conflict again escalated into war. The name of Karabakh is first mentioned in the 14th century in the geographical work of Hamdallah Mustawi Nuzhat al-qulub and possibly derived from the name of some now extinct same-titled Turkic tribe. [citation needed]. On April 7, being based on Shusha, the Azerbaijan army has led approach to the south. Pogrom in Shusha was kept in historical memory of the Karabakh Armenians as largest of the accidents gone through by them. The monasteries Amaras, Orek, Katarovank, Djrvshtik and others acquired a significance that transcended the local area and spread across the Armenian lands. This wasn't the first time that Shushi had been targeted. In these circumstances the government of Azerbaijan declared the incorporation of Karabakh into the newly established Azerbaijan Democratic Republic of Baku and Yelizavetpol Gubernias. Karabakh became part of the Transcaucasian Federation. [30] This vast area between the rivers of Kura and Araxes received Turkic name Karabakh (combination of "black" (Kara) in Turkic and "garden" (bakh) in Persian) with Artsakh corresponding to its mountainous part (Mountainous Karabakh/Nagorno-Karabakh in Soviet tradition). As the Soviet Union crumbled, Artsakh once more declared its intention for independence as the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh on September 2, 1991, three days after Azerbaijan declared its own independence. Census of 1897 shows 25.656 inhabitants, from them of 56,5% of Armenians and 43,2% Azerbaijanis [53]. As a result of the war for Nagorno-Karabakh safety and independence, Azerbaijanis were driven out of Nagorno-Karabakh and territories adjacent to Nagorno-Karabakh. Unfortunately, according to Black Garden by Thomas de Waal, in less than a year Artsakh's "de facto leader of the region" and speaker of Artsakh's newly elected parliament, Artur Mkrtchian, was also found dead in mysterious circumstances. [21], According to the "Geography" (Ashkharatsuyts) of 7th-century Armenian geographer Anania Shirakatsi, Artsakh was the 10th among the 15 provinces (nahangs) of Armenia, and consisted of 12 districts (gavars): Myus Haband (Second Haband, as opposed to Haband of Siunik), Vaykunik (Tsar), Berdadzor, Mets Arank, Mets Kvenk, Harjlank, Mukhank, Piank, Parsakank (Parzvank), Kusti, Parnes and Koght. Due to his reputation as a skillful warrior and his wealthy ancestor's legacy in Karabakh, Panah Ali proclaimed himself and was soon recognized throughout most of the region as a ruler (khan). Disarmament of the population stops before peace conference. The historical roots of the region can be traced back as far as the 5 th Century BC. Ереван, 1992, p. 73 Document №46. Control over Nagorno-Karabakh is divided between  Azerbaijan and  Artsakh with Russian peacekeeping forces. Нагорный Карабах в 1918–1923 гг. B.C.) According to Terrible Fate by Benjamin Lieberman, in June 1919, roughly 600 Armenians were massacred in Shushi and its neighboring villages. That was the first known war for freedom of worship in the history of the world. After the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813, Artsakh was transferred from Persian to Russian rule. The essential difference in the cases of Nagorno Karabakh and Kosovo lies in the histories of both regions. — RealnoeVremya.com", "Moscow Says Karabakh Status 'Intentionally' Left Out at Talks, Wants to 'Close POW Issue, Articles and Photography on Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) from UK Photojournalist Russell Pollard, Mountainous-Karabakh.org: History, maps, images and information, Gandzasar.com: Gandzasar Monastery and History of Nagorno Karabakh, Law on Abolishment of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, Administrative divisions of the Republic of Artsakh, Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Nagorno-Karabakh&oldid=1001421102, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2009, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, Articles needing additional references from January 2021, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with disputed statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2009, Articles needing cleanup from November 2012, Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from November 2012, Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from November 2012, Wikipedia articles needing cleanup after translation, Wikipedia articles needing cleanup after translation from unknown language, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Varanda Melikdom included the territory from Karkar to the southern side of. Within hours, a pogrom against Armenian residents began in the city of Sumgait, 25 km north of Baku, where many Azerbaijani refugees resided. In March 1918, ethnic and religious tension grew and the Armenian-Azeri conflict in Baku began. Panakh khan founded the fortress of Shusha at a location, recommended by melik Shahnazar, and made it the capital of Karabakh khanate. The province of Aghvank, including Artsakh and Caucasian Albania, converted to Christianity early in the 4th century and the Albanian Church was considered a branch of the Armenian Church. Fragments of a fortress, and also hundreds of artifacts similar to those found in excavations of ancient sites in Armenia proper, have been unearthed. State The state or administrative unit that the region of Artsakh belonged to. In Khachen to Armenians in general it was possible to beat off successfully from the Azerbaijanians come from Agdam, and Azerbaijanians have only destroyed some villages in a valley of river Khachen, to northeast from Askeran. The Republic of Armenia, Volume I: 1918-1919. The area today known as Nagorno Karabakh (Artsakh) was originally one of the three main ancient provinces of Armenia. Russia appointed Ibrahim-Khalil's son Mekhti-Gulu his successor. During the first Russian revolution in 1905, bloody armed clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis took place in the fields. Establishing a full control over the export of the Baku oil, the British sought the final secession of Transcaucasia from Russia; Azerbaijan, as it was supposed, was to play a role of an advanced post of the West in the South Caucasus to create barriers to the sovietization of the region. To counter this and to preserve the country, Artsakh liberation struggle began, which was of paramount military and political importance in the new history of Armenia. Нагорный Карабах в 1918–1923 гг. According to first Russian-held census of 1823 conducted by Russian officials Yermolov and Mogilevsky, in Shusha were 1,111 (72.5%) Azerbaijani families and 421 (27.5%) Armenian families. The Russian Empire consolidated its power over the Karabakh Khanate following the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813 and Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828, when following two Russo-Persian wars, Persia recognized Karabakh Khanate which dissolved in 1806, along with many other khanates, as part of Russia. Princedom Khachen existed until 16th–17th century and has broken up into five small princedoms ("melikdoms"): Those melikdoms were referred to as Khamsa, which means "five" in Arabic. The absence of power and political instability in the 18th century in Persia created the threat to its integrity. The new borders of Transcaucasia could not be defined without the agreement of Great Britain. KarabakhFacts is a comprehensive database on Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict, its history and the current peace process, mediated by OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairs. A Short History of Nagorno Karabakh (Artsakh) 189 BC. Armenian involvement in Karabakh escalated after a December 1993 Azerbaijani offensive. Tigranakert in Artsakh features ruins and artifacts from pagan and Hellenic eras and was also a hub for early Christianity. The concluding document reads: But, with the direct intervention of Russian troops, Azerbaijan regained control of the area. To find out whether Nagorno-Karabgh would be able to defend its independence in case of war, at the Congress the Commission was established which came to the conclusion, that the Karabakhians would not be able to do so. It is one of four cities with this name that were built in the beginning of 1 BC by the king of Armenia, Tigranes the Great. Нагорный Карабах в 1918–1923 гг. In addition to that they marked, that " to 1980 in Nagorno-Karabakh 85 Armenian villages (30%) have been liquidated and none at all Azerbaijanian "[94] Also, Armenians accused the government of Azerbaijan "to the purposeful policy of discrimination and replacement". Armenians were especially concentrated in the mountainous part of Artsakh, the region currently known as Nagorno-Karabakh. With the support of Soviet/Russian military forces, Azerbaijanis forced out tens of thousand Armenians from Shahumyan region. Armenia is a country with millennial history and rich cultural heritage. The troops reportedly killed 122 Azerbaijanis in what is known as Black January in quelling the uprising, and Gorbachev denounced the APF for striving to establish an Islamic Republic. While subordinate to Safavid Persia's Karabakh beylerbeylik (ruled by Ziyad-oglu Qajars) the Armenian meliks were granted a wide degree of autonomy by Safavid Persia over Upper Karabakh, maintaining semi-quasi autonomous control over the region for four centuries,[37][38][39] while being under Persian domination. Instead of the promised help, Peter the Great advised the Armenians of Artsakh to leave their native places of residence and move to Derbent, Baku, Gilan, Mazandaran where the Russian power had recently been established in the war intending to consolidate its hold on the occupied. There were demonstrations in Stepanakert and Baku demanding Artsakh's reunification with Armenia. According to The Caucasian Knot, in 1827, the Meliks submitted a plan for the reunification of Armenian lands, including Artsakh and the Karabakh region. In the second half of the 7th century in the initial period of the Arab dominion, political and cultural life in Artsakh did not cease. Artsakh world (ashkhar-province) served as a shield for the central regions of Armenia from the raids of nomadic and barberian tribes from the east. According to the local traditions held by many people in the area, the two river valleys in Nagorno-Karabakh were among the first to be settled by Noah's descendants. изд.1. By 2007, over 400,000 Armenians and 600,000 Azeris had been displaced by the war. Artsakh, now situated in Azerbaijan, was known during the Uratrian period as "Urtekhe" and by the fourth century BC, it bore the name "Artsakh". Aran was called "the Aghu" (meaning amiable in Armenian) because of his good manners. The first mention of the territory of modern Nagorno Karabakh is in the inscriptions of Sardur II, King of Urartu (763–734 BC), found in the village of Tsovk in Armenia, where the region is referred to as Urtekhini. It began on March 22 (on Nowruz) when Armenian forces broke the armistice and unexpectedly attacked Askeran and Khankendi. Artsakh (or Nagorno-Karabagh) is part of historical Armenia, inhabited by Armenians even from before Roman times. Melik of Varanda Shahnazar II, who was at odds with other meliks, was the first to accept suzerainty of Panakh khan. At that time, Arts… The government of Azerbaijan for this once tried to capture Nagorno-Karabakh with the help of the British. Its population was reduced up to 9.000, and by the end of 20th and up to 5.000 person[79] (and so never and has not risen above 17.000 in 1989). Ереван, 1992, рр. In the 7th and 8th centuries a distinctive Christian culture was shaped. HISTORY OF ARTSAKH (PART 2: FROM 1918 TO 1989) Claims to the Armenian lands: The Russian Revolution of 1917 put an end to czarist administrative division of Caucasus. However, Avan-khan soon died[36], In 1747, Turkic ruler Panah Ali Khan Javanshir from the Azeri Javanshir clan, by then already a successful naib and royal gérant de maison, found himself displeased with Nader Shah's attitude towards him during the latters later years of rule, and having gathered many of those deported from Karabakh in 1736, he returned to his homeland. [28], In the 11th century the Seljuk invasion swept over the Middle East, including Transcaucasia. This article encompasses the history of the region from the ancient to the modern period. The ceasefire has been broken repeatedly and little was done to reconcile Artsakh, Armenia, or Azerbaijan. Per the Brief History of Artsakh, during this time, the town of Shushi flourished and Armenian districts were rebuilt after having fallen into disrepair during Persian rule. By the 9th century, Artsakh was reintegrated into the Armenian Kingdom of Bagratids as the Principality of Khachen. It has accused Azerbaijan of robbery, murders and hunting for Armenians on roads, and that it "aspires to destroy Armenians as the unique cultural element, gravitating not to the East, and to the Europe ". During this time,[clarification needed] valuable architecture was constructed, such as the Church of Hovanes Mkrtich (John the Baptist) and its vestibule at the Gandzasar Monastery (1216–1260; the ancient residence of the Catholicos of Albania), the Dadi Monastery Cathedral Church (1214), and Gtchavank Cathedral Church (1241–1248). According to EAFJD, by the summer of 1992, half of the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh was occupied by Azeri forces and displaced the Armenian population. The essential difference in the cases of Nagorno Karabakh and Kosovo lies in the histories of both regions. : сборник документов и материалов. The Armenians assumed that the Azerbaijanians would be celebrating Nowruz and would therefore not be prepared for defense, but an attempted attack on the Azerbaijan garrison in Shusha failed because of poor coordination. For 65 years of the NKAO's existence, the Karabakh Armenians felt they were the object of various restrictions on the part of Azerbaijan. [19] Artsakh lies significantly to the south of this river. Nomadic Oghuz Seljuk tribes that were brought with this invasion became dominant constituent in the ancestry of modern Azerbaijanis. To access it, one has to go through Armenia. Eager to win time and to concentrate the forces available, the Congress of the Armenians of Karabakh convened on August 13, 1919, concluded the agreement on August 22 according to which Nagorno-Karabgh considered itself to be fully within the borders of the Azerbaijani Republic till the final solution of the problem at Peace Conference in Paris. [103] According to Armenian news agency Noyan Tapan, Rokhlin openly lobbied for the interests of Azerbaijan. According to Ancient History Encyclopedia, the Yervanduni dynasty ruled until the second century BC, initially under Persian and then under Seleucid control. At the same time the Baku Commune was involved in heavy fighting with the advancing Ottoman Caucasian Army of Islam in and around Ganja. (The term Nagorno-Karabakh originates from the Russian for "mountainous Karabakh.") As noted by Portraits of Hope, Nadezhda Mandelstam wrote in her memoirs that when she and her husband Osip Mandelstam, the Russian poet, were in Shushi, he couldn't bring himself to eat "because he felt Armenian blood in the bread." [73], From February 23 until March 4, 1920, the Eighth Congress of Karabakhi Armenians was held and it rejected the demand of Sultanov. Artsakh is the Armenian name for Karabakh. Strabo, carefully listing all gains of Armenian kings since 189 BC, does not mention Orchistenê, which indirectly shows that it probably has been transferred to the Armenian empire from the Persian satrapy of "East Armenia". Azerbaijan tried to suppress Artsakh's Armenian population in early 1991 through "Operation Ring," which sought to deport the Armenian populations in 24 villages. Stating that the fate of the disputable territories must be solved at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, the British command in reality did everything for incorporating Nagorno-Karabakh into Azerbaijan long before the final resolution of the problem. But the plan was rejected by Tsar Nicholas I. Artsakh remained in what was eventually named the Elizavetpol province while a separate "Armenian Province" was created in the 1820s, including only the principalities of Yerevan and Nakhichevan. In 1722, Peter the Great's Russo-Persian War (1722–23) began. These nomads, though never considered in census, regarded Karabakh as their homeland. In recent years, both the president of Azerbaijan and the mayor of Baku have made incendiary remarks regarding the extermination of Armenians and have encouraged the destruction of Armenian khachkars in an act of cultural genocide. However, he was assassinated some years afterwards, ever increasing the political unrest in the region. Unit that the city and set fire to what was left, burning Shushi the! Baku began Principality of Khachen the Seljuk invasion swept over the Middle Ages, and. Churches were also closed be known as Nagorno Karabakh. '' but khan Ibrahim-Khalil ( term! Approach has been stopped in Giulistan – under Keshishkend and Sigankh ' commander in,... Nowruz ) when Armenian forces to cease their attacks on and occupation of a citadel and basilica. Conflicts, from them of 56,5 % of Azerbaijani territory, not the Soviet Union in 1991 was edited... 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